Ancient Israel

(c. 1200 B.C.E. – 538 B.C.E)

There were some female scribes in the ancient Near East. Thus, it’s not impossible that an Israelite woman could have been a scholar, though we don’t have any extant evidence. However, despite all the questions of dating, historical facts, oral culture, and scribal activity, biblical references are cited below. These are words narrated as occurring during prophesying or otherwise seem interpretive. Prophecy was often, but not always, an interpretation of tradition or the Law. If extra-biblical Israelite material ever surfaces that will be included as well. If you have any additional information, including secondary bibliography that specifically studies these women’s words as possible interpretations of tradition (including oral) please e-mail


  • Exodus 15:20-21 (could just be an interpretation of experience or . . . )