Second Temple Period

(c. 538 B.C.E. – 70 C.E.)

See note in section on Ancient Israel. If you have any information on female Jewish prophets, teachers, writers in the Second Temple period, including words recorded in pseudepigrapha,  apocrypha, or Dead Sea Scrolls, please e-mail: We are also interested in secondary bibliography that specifically studies these women’s interpretation of scriptural tradition.


Mary, mother of Jesus

Samaritan Woman

Mary Magdalene